Do Dogs Dream?

By Sally Gutteridge | Personal , Posts

You’ve seen your dog pawing, yipping and even barking in his sleep. Every time it happens you wonder if your faithful dog could be dreaming. We’d like to think that our beloved pets are able to enjoy the fun and mystery of dreams, but we’re not sure if the brains of dogs work the same way ours do. Do dogs dream?

Yes, say the experts. Scientists have studied many kinds of mammals in order to answer this exact question. And these same scientists have found significant evidence that dogs do in fact dream. In fact, almost every pet is able to dream.

Dog Sleep Basics
Dogs have the same kind of sleep that human do. They have rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow movement sleep (SMS.) During REM sleep, the brain processes events of the day and stores new material. This is true in both humans and pets. Dogs spend 10-13% of their time in REM sleep, and puppies can spend even more. Of course puppies have a great deal more information to process.

Dogs Dream
Humans have consistently reported dreaming when woken up during REM sleep. The brain is actually working the same way during REM sleep as it does when you are awake. Dogs have the same REM sleep and the same brain patterns during that sleep that humans do. Therefore, scientists are confident that dogs dream. In fact, they feel confident that almost every mammal dreams excluding the duckbilled platypus whose brainwaves are different than other mammals.

But what do dogs dream about? That is something scientists don’t know. It is reasonable to assume that dogs dream about their experiences and adventures during their waking hours. After all, REM is when the brain is working to organize information, so it is logical your pet might be reliving experiences.

Most of our dreams stem from our experiences combined with our imaginations. But we’re not sure if dogs actually have imaginations. So we don’t know if they are branching out beyond the walk through the park to new realms during their dreams or if they just get to enjoy their bone one more time.

But one thing is definite. Dogs do in fact dream. So the next time your pooch is twitching, yowling or running in his sleep – don’t wake him. He’s simply reliving his most exciting experience of the day.

Share your thoughts… What do you think dogs dream about? Leave a comment below!

How to Take Care of a Dog

By Sally Gutteridge | Posts , Puppies , Tips

Are you a new dog owner looking for information on how to take care of a dog? I have written this short article specifically for you so that you can give him the care and love that he needs to thrive in your home and bring you as much joy as possible.

Food is among the most basic necessity to take care of a dog. Puppies eat two or three times a day and grown dogs eat usually once or twice a day. You should feed your animal a high quality dog food, preferably the hard kibble to help keep his teeth clean. Dogs don’t need variety in their diet but for a treat you can offer occasional fruits or vegetables. Avoid feeding table scraps as these can be unhealthy. Chocolate should be avoided at all costs as it is poisonous for dogs in large quantities.

Your dog needs a safe, dry place to sleep at night and during the day. If your dog stays inside, invest in a bed that is the right size for your him and put it somewhere that is out of the way and comfortable. Dogs can also be content to sleep in a crate if they are crate trained, but place a towel or mat into the crate to help them stay comfortable.

If your dog is an outside dog, think carefully about the amount of care they are receiving. Many outside dogs aren’t as comfortable and content as they should be. Your dog should have shelter in the form of a dog house, and plenty of fresh water. Watch weather conditions carefully and if possible, allow your dog to spend the night inside your home or garage for its safety.

Dogs need to be cleaned and cared for. Regular baths will help with shedding and unpleasant odors. Trim your dog’s nails on a regular basis to avoid painful breaks or scratches. Long haired animals should be groomed frequently to prevent matting and to keep shedding to a minimum. You should also pay attention to the dog’s teeth. Certain bones, food and chew toys help keep dog teeth clean, but you might also consider brushing them if your dog is comfortable with it.

As the owner of a dog, it is your responsibility to keep him healthy. Take him to the vet regularly to stay current on shots and flea medicine. The vet can also give you advice about feedings and grooming. You should prevent any dangers to your animal such as removing or avoiding certain plants, foods or household items that can harm him.

Finally, dogs need love and attention. Your dog will love you unconditionally, and expects love and attention in return. Part of loving your animal is training him regularly. Once he knows your expectations, he will be more content and the two of you can live together in happy harmony.

It is rather easy to take care of a dog once you know how, and if you have any questions or comments please leave it below and I will try to address it to the best of my abilities.

Getting a Puppy

By Sally Gutteridge | Posts , Puppies

Getting a puppy is an exciting addition to a family. They are adorable and warm. They snuggle and cuddle and seem to do everything right. Unfortunately, this is not all there is to puppies. Getting a puppy is a lot of work, and they don’t stay little and cute forever.

If you are thinking about getting a puppy, I highly recommend that you read this article.

The first major consideration for getting a puppy is the time you have to dedicate to it. If you are working long hours, it is not fair to leave your new puppy alone at home. Your puppy will need frequent attention and love and you simply can’t meet its needs if you are not present.

Puppies also require a lot of training and retraining to develop skills necessary to live in your home peacefully. Getting your new puppy housebroken is only the first step in teaching your animal to coexist correctly, so be sure you are ready to dedicate the time it takes to do so properly.

Puppies have a great deal of energy. They play hard and sleep hard. Many puppies need to exercise and explore frequently to use up their boundless energy and have a chance to eliminate outdoors. That means that you will most likely be heading out the door with your puppy quite a few times during the day.

Getting a puppy is just the beginning of a long-term commitment to pet ownership. Puppies are cute and often get away with misbehavior. A full-grown animal doesn’t usually get the same treatment. So, if you’re getting a puppy, be ready to commit yourself to his training and care for the next ten to fifteen years. It’s simply not fair to the puppy to do otherwise.

If you are getting the puppy for a child, you must still be ready to care for the animal. It is rare that a child is able to correctly handle a puppy, and the child will often lose interest in going for walks and will need help with the training.

Puppies have a lot to learn and they are not always fast learners. Patience is absolutely essential when dealing with a puppy. You can expect to take two steps forward and one step back on every new skill or correction. If you are not blessed with patience, perhaps consider a pet that requires less handling or consider adopting an animal that is already trained from a shelter. Those animals are definitely in need of a good home.

A Dog Park is Fun, but is it Safe?

By Sally Gutteridge | Posts , Tips

dog_parksYour dog is learning each and every waking minute and maybe even when it sleeps. It may well figure out a good spot to sleep without getting disturbed. Either way, your dog will waste no opportunity in learning something; it knows no other way.

This leads to an important question… Who and what do you allow to teach your dog? Each day, I see dog owners allowing their dogs to run around in the local dog park with little or no knowledge of the past history, social skills, or even the names of the other dogs. Even if these same dog owners don’t allow such reckless play, they will often stop when meeting up with another dog, and allow the dogs to mix, again with little or no knowledge of the other dog. I believe both of these acts can potentially be counter-productive and negatively affect the relationship between the dog and the owner.

The Physical Dangers of a Dog Park
One risk of such unchecked encounters is physical injuries that may arise from a dog fight. Dog fights can flare up in seconds and result in physical damage which, aside from being very painful to your dog, can cost thousands of dollars to correct, and open up a whole world of potential legal implications.

There is also the risk of long-term, if not permanent, behavioral changes to your dog or the other dog. Again, it takes seconds, and it can create very big problems. Your dog may, from that day forth, show signs of aggression towards all other dogs, or it may nervously shiver all the time. Dogs can be affected in so many ways.

The Relationship Dangers
A trainer friend of mine once told me, “Give me fifteen minutes and a pound of liver, and I’ll make your dog forget you ever existed.” We like to think that our dogs will naturally gravitate towards us, but it’s not the case. There are quite literally millions of things that your dog would rather do than be with you, unless you are prepared to put a lot of ground work in to the relationship. Don’t believe me? Open your front door and see what the dog does. Chances are that your dog will dash out quicker than you can say sit.

When you allow your dog to play with other dogs at a dog park, you open the door to a whole new world, but a world where you don’t play a significant part, and that’s the real danger. You will rarely be able to compete with other dogs in the ‘how much fun am I’ stakes. Why make it harder for yourself by allowing unchecked play with other dogs at a dog park?

What do you think?
Do you think that bringing your dog to a dog park is safe? I know quite a lot of people who have bring their dog to a dog park regularly and say that it is great. But on the other hand I also know some people who have had their dog attacked at a dog park for no perceivable reasons.

Target Training

By Sally Gutteridge | Posts , Training , Tricks

What is Target Training? It is simply training your dog to touch a target with his nose so that you can control his body movements. It is extremely easy to train and everyone with a dog can train this behavior!

What you will need for Target Training:

  • You will need a clicker, you can find one your local pet store for a $1 or $2. This little device will be used to communicate with your dog (more on that later).
  • You will need a target stick. You should be able to find one at good pet stores, if it doesn’t carry one then you can buy a high quality one online, or as a last resort you can make your own! I created a quick guide on how to make your own below this article…

Target Training How-To:

  • This is very easy. All you have to do is get a bunch of treats and put them in your training pouch or your pocket.
  • Bring your target stick and position it in a way that your dog can easily touch it with his nose.
  • Pay very close attention! As soon as your dog touches it with his nose, click your clicker!
  • Then give him a treat.

This is simple right? Target training is very simple to do. Once your dog learns that touching the target earns him one treat, you can literally move the target around the room and he will follow it!

Making your own Target Training Stick:

You have two options to choose from when building a target training stick – you can either make a retractable or a non-retractable target stick. A retractable target stick enables you to adjust the length of the target training stick – which can make it easier for some training exercises, and it also is much easier to store.

When I decided to build my own target training stick – I was fortunate enough to already have both of my items in my basement. The material I used to make my target stick is a retractable telescoping magnet and a Ping-Pong ball. These items are pretty cheap and can be found at your local Wal-Mart, dollar or hardware store.

To get started, make a slight cut in the Ping-Pong ball of approximately one quarter inch. I have found that cutting into the seam of the Ping-Pong ball helps in having a straight cut. You can then slip the tip of the telescoping magnet into the ball – try inserting it using a 45 degree angle. Once the tip is inserted into the ball – you can then push it all the way down and you are done! You now have a hand-made retractable target training stick.

There are multiple other materials that can be used to make a target stick – I have seen small tube pieces of wood for less than 2$ at home depot, and I am sure you could find some cheap balls at the dollar store. A small tennis ball would also work wonders, and are usually really cheap. In the end, this could cost you less than 5$ – and if you are on a tight budget, this might be great for you.

Becoming the Pack Leader

By Sally Gutteridge | Behavior , Posts , Training

In nature, puppies have a so-called “puppy license” for the first 4 or 5 months. During this time, older dogs will let them get away with all sorts of puppy behavior without retaliation. If the older dog doesn’t feel like playing with the pup, then he will often just get up and move away, or else give a quick verbal signal that he isn’t interested. Only once this “puppy license” has expired do the pups start getting real lessons in manners from the other dogs.

During her seminars, Patricia McConnell often shows two videos of Bailey, a beautiful golden retriever pup. In the first video, Bailey is perhaps 4 months old, and is chewing on a child’s stuffed toy. The woman owner tries to get the toy away from the dog by using outdated “dominance” techniques such as grabbing the puppy by the scruff of the neck and trying to make it submit to her. Retrievers are mouthy dogs and by their nature love to chew on stuff. So can anyone guess what happens after a month or two of such “training”?

In the second video, Bailey is around 6 months old. Again the dog is chewing on a toy, except that now he’s quite a bit larger. He snarls as the owner tries to get the toy away, and snaps at her hand. The owner is still faithfully following her trainer’s orders and trying to get the dog to submit to her authority. So what happens next?

Bailey was put down before he reached one year of age.

It didn’t have to happen! The dog wasn’t aggressive by nature, but simply ruined by bad training and horrible conditioning. Unfortunately, some trainers today still rely on outdated and now proven false research going back to the 1920’s, 30’s and 40’s.

In her 12-page pamphlet “How to Be the Pack Leader“, Patricia McConnell states in the introduction:

“Dogs need to feel secure to be truly happy; that means they need to feel secure that you will be the pack leader, and that they can count on you to take charge. But being the pack leader is often misunderstood. It doesn’t mean that you forcibly dominate your dog. Rather, leadership is more of a mental quality in which you set boundaries without intimidation.”

The pack leader isn’t always the strongest. Many of you have perhaps seen and wondered how a household with several dogs, sometimes the bigger dogs will acknowledge a smaller and physically weaker dog as the pack leader? Surely that alone is enough to debunk the old-fashioned myths about the biggest bully always becoming the pack leader?

So, how do we dog owners become the pack leaders? Well, it isn’t so much a matter of forcing ourselves into the position as getting our dogs to accept us as such. Sounds much tougher than just pinning a dog to the floor in an alpha roll, doesn’t it? Well, yes, it requires a bit more work, and a bit more thought, and a bit more effort.

During his presentation, Anders Hallgren put up a slide with common training advice that soon had us all nodding our heads in recognition. I’m sure you’ve heard them all, too. Perhaps you’ve even been faithfully following them as an integral part of your training routine…

  • Don’t let the dog walk first out through the door.
  • Don’t let the dog eat its meal before you eat yours.
  • Don’t let the dog be positioned higher up than you (physically, like you on the floor and the dog up on the couch).
  • Don’t let the dog be in the bed or on the sofa.
  • The dog should pee only to empty the bladder (don’t let the dog mark when taking a walk).
  • Punish severely all protests, like growling and the like.
  • Always be sure to win tug of war and other games you play with the dog.
  • Don’t greet the dog when coming home.

These rules are misconceptions and have very little to do with pack leadership. Some, however, do have value in terms of dealing with other possible problems, such as separation anxiety (greeting) or the danger of letting dogs run out of the house into the street (not going first through doors). In terms of leadership, however, none of these rules will help you gain the top role. Pack leaders have a special role in the group and do special tasks. Anders Hallgren summarizes these as:

  • Initiates moving from the location.
  • Leads the group to special places, like hunting grounds.
  • Chooses prey.
  • Initiates the hunt.
  • Directs during the chase.
  • Calls off the hunt.
  • Seldom initiates social activities, but does not turn away.
  • Often is the subject of affection.
  • Finds places to rest, and lies down, thereby making the group relax, too.

What we dog owners should do is perform activities that mimic true leaders in the wild:

  • Take goal directed walks that lead to interesting places.
  • Choose types of activities (courses, mental training, etc).
  • Give the dog a starting signal.
  • Tell the dog in which order the activities shall be.
  • Call off the activities.
  • Let the dog greet, but don’t initiate the greeting very often.
  • Always respond with affection when the dog makes contact.
  • Rest at certain times and thereby get the dog to relax, too.

To summarize, becoming a pack leader in your dog’s eyes will require active involvement and daily training. Are you up for it?

Preventing Dog Food Aggression

By Sally Gutteridge | Behavior , Posts

dog_food-aggressionDogs have learned throughout their many years of existence that they must protect their resources, such as food, in order to survive. They’ve learned that they could easily keep other dogs from eating their food by growling, showing teethes, snapping or even biting other dogs that came too close to their food.

But dogs live a very different lifestyle since we’ve started to domesticate them. Some of their ingrained behaviors are not acceptable when living with people, such as dog food aggression. This could be very dangerous, especially when the dog begins to protect his food from his owner, or anyone who comes close to him.

Some dog owners have the tendency of leaving unlimited amounts of food available for their dog. The dog can then eat whenever it wants, as much as it wants and is subject to no rules. There are a few reasons why I advise against doing this, mainly because the dog does not understand that you are the provider of the food, but also because it usually leads to the dog over-eating and becoming overweight.

To prevent dog food aggression, it is always a good idea to give your dog measured meals and at regular intervals. If you look on the back of your dog food’s packaging, you will find a chart that indicates how much food your dog should eat, relative to his weight. You should also give your dog more food than the maximum amount indicated if he is a very active dog. When feeding your dog, place his food bowl down, and give him a maximum of thirty minutes to eat, and then pick up the bowl and any remaining food.

If your dog has already bitten someone while defending his food bowl, then you should immediately contact a reputable dog trainer or behaviorist. They will be able to access your dog’s behavior and to determine the safest way to proceed with his training.

Training your dog to not guard his food bowl is best done while he is still a puppy. However adults and older dogs can also be trained, it will just take a little bit more time and dedication.

The best way to get your dog to accept people around his food bowl is to teach him that wonderful things will happen when people are nearby when he is eating. Please follow the following instructions carefully, while making sure that your dog is comfortable with each step before moving onto the next.

  1. Give your dog half of his usual meal, when he finishes, pick up the empty bowl and add the second half, then give it back.
  2. Randomly walk up to your dog while he is eating and drop in super delicious dog treats in his food bowl.
  3. Walk up to your dog while talking calmly, and stoke and pet him lightly. Then drop in a super delicious dog treat into his food bowl.
  4. Take away your dog’s food bowl before he is finished, add some super delicious treats and give it back.

Dog food aggression is one of the most dangerous and most common problematic behaviors encountered. Small children are especially at risk around food possessive dogs. If your dog training efforts do not work or show progress, please call a reputable dog trainer or behaviorist as soon as possible.

Holding The End Of The Leash Properly

By Jean Cote | Posts , Tips , Training

There are many different kinds of leashes on the market today; each one has its own practical and aesthetic appeal. So holding the end of the leash is going to be different with each kind. When shopping for a leash, you will need to consider your dog’s size and age. Keep in mind that small dogs and puppies should have light weight leashes while larger dogs should have stronger and heavier leashes.

There are different lengths of leashes available; the majority of leashes come in 4-foot, 6-foot or 8-foot lengths. For training purposes, a 6-foot length leash is ideal and recommended. The longer leashes are used when your training requires you to be at a distance from your dog.

Nylong LeashLeashes come in many different materials. The most popular leash today is the nylon leash. Its low price tag, along with the variety of colors and designs makes it a popular item amongst dog owners. They are used in every day situations as well as dog training.

Leather LeashBut for those of you who want the absolute best, the leash of choice is made of leather. These leashes are more attractive, but most importantly, they are superior in strength and are much easier to hold a grip.

Cotton LeashThere are also leashes made out of cotton, which are also easier on the hands than nylon, especially if the dog tends to pull. Cotton leashes can be bought in very long lengths, some up to 30-feet long, making them ideal for training outside or in any unenclosed outside areas.

Retractable LeashRetractable leashes have gained popularity in the last few years. They have a unique feature to extend and retract automatically while the dog moves around. This gives the dog more space and freedom to walk while avoiding the leash from getting tangled in his legs. These leashes are usually higher priced than regular nylon leashes.

A retractable leash is definitely not recommended for dogs that aren’t already trained to walk on a loose leash. Many dog trainers believe that these leashes encourage the dog to pull; the mechanism of the leash creates a constant pressure on the dog’s collar, which leaves the dog unable to tell when the leash is tight or loose.

For situations when you need to keep your dog close to you, a traffic leash can be useful. Usually made of leather, traffic leashes are between 15 to 18 inches long and feature a large handle loop. A large dog can easily be held close to your body if equipped with a traffic leash.

Tab LeashWhen training agility equipment or any other activity that involves obstacles, it’s often recommended that people use a training tab or a short leash of about 8 inches long. The reason for using these short leashes is to avoid the dog from getting caught in the obstacles or in his legs, while still allowing you some control over the dog if the need ever arises. It is very useful when beginning training your dog as you can use the leash to lead him through an obstacle or catch him before he runs off.

Learning how to hold the end of the leash properly can avoid many potential problems. Many dog owners make the mistake of wrapping their leash two or three times around their hand. This can be very dangerous for you safety, since it leaves you unable to let go of the leash if you ever need to, especially when walking a bigger and larger dog.

A proper and effective way to hold the end of the leash is to insert your thumb in the loop at the end of your leash, and to grab the middle of the leash or any distance you need. With this technique you can add or remove length to your leash by grabbing further or closer to your dog.

Holding a Leash Step 1

Holding a Leash Step 2

Holding a Leash Step 3

Overall, holding the end of the leash is a personal matter and you may choose to hold it whatever way you like, but now you will know of a new way to hold it. Try it during your next walk and see if you think it could be beneficial.

A Closer Look At The Mini Husky

By Sally Gutteridge | Breeds , Posts

The Mini Husky has emerged on the scene in recent years as a smaller companion sized version of the Siberian husky. The Mini Husky has been well received by dog owners as a more feasible alternative to their standard sized counterparts. However the debut of this diminutive little dog has not been without controversy.

The biggest topic of discussion surrounding the Mini Husky is their very existence. Some people believe that there is no such thing as a Mini Husky and that a smaller sized Siberian Husky shouldn’t be classified on its own as a Mini Husky.

My research has determined that a Mini Husky is not a new and separate breed. They are instead a smaller version of its standard sized counterpart the Siberian husky. Temperament, health, and looks all remain the same while only the weight and height is different. Some Mini Husky enthusiasts state that by decreasing the size of the Siberian Husky, the dog’s lifespan is increased and incidents of hip dysplasia decreases. This could make the Mini Husky a more suitable companion for families living in smaller quarters or families that must abide by weight limits enforced by homeowners or condo associations.

Mini Husky owners that have owned the standard sized dogs previously have found that with the decreased size of the dogs they have less problems with separation anxiety simply due to the fact that the dog is more easily transported and remains with the family instead of staying at home. Mini Husky owners have also noticed that since the dogs are shorter they are not able to scale their fences and there have been less issues with dogs escaping. Like all huskies the Mini Husky does possess the affinity for running but would probably not be suitable for pulling sleds.

Due to the lovely temperament of Siberian Huskies, they are usually easily rehomed if an owner is no longer able to care for the dog. Most Mini Husky breeders will accept a dog that they’ve bred back into their homes at any point in their lives. The group maintains a huge waiting list of individuals who desire an adult dog rather than a puppy.

The Mini Husky was originally developed by Bree Normandin in the late 1990s. The dogs weren’t made publicly available until December of 2004 when for the very first time a puppy was placed with a new owner via the internet.

The Mini Husky is still very rare with only a handful of authorized breeders involved with the dog’s continued development. Breeders are reporting having to utilize a waiting list because the demand for the dogs exceeds the current supply.

Dog Body Language Guide

By Jean Cote | Behavior , Posts , Tips , Training

It is truly amazing to see that all dogs from all over the world has learned to communicate with each other using a universal dog body language. Whether you are from China, Europe or Mexico, all dogs communicate the same way. They communicate their moods and feelings by giving out signals with their body.

An encounter with a dog can be a lovely experience or a very bad one and is totally depending on how well you interpret dog body language.

In this universal dog body language, postures and movements express mood, rank and intention. These are clearly understood by other dogs but they can be confusing to humans. For example, a dog that is wagging his tail does not necessarily mean that he is friendly. It could mean that he is afraid and hope that you don’t hurt him or it could mean that he is getting ready to confront you and might lunge and bite you if you get too close.

To know what a dog is trying to communicate, you will have to look at the overall dog body language. He will be giving multiple messages through his facial expression, his tail and the way he is standing.

Some breeds make it easier to recognize the dog’s body language. Dogs that have long and curly tails with pointy ears will be much easier to recognize than a dog with cropped ears or a docked tail.

Neutral State: A dog which is in a happy emotional state will be less tense than when he is in an alert or aggressive state. His tail is relaxed and wagging; his mouth is slightly open, which might look like a smile to us. His breathing is slightly energetic depending on how happy he is. The facial muscles and the ears are relaxed. If he is very excited he may jump, bow, growl or bark. But the playful growls and barks are given at a much higher pitch than the ones indicating aggression.

Dog Neutral Stance

Submissive: In the universal dog body language, when a dog is frightened, he will try to make himself look as small as possible. They will draw back from anything confronting them, and they may even crouch on the floor. They will avoid any direct eye contact. In general, the tail is down or between the legs; they may lick their lips or nose in a nervous manner. As an extreme they might even roll onto their side or on their back to show their belly or even urinate.

Dog Submissive Stance

Dog Passive Submission Stance

Aroused: An alert dog will have tense muscles, ears will be forward and the face will have wrinkles. His tail may be out straight and wagging slowly from side to side. It’s very important to understand that a dog may become aggressive quickly, or he might just be wondering who is approaching or what that weird noise was. Either way, it’s very important to approach an alert dog with caution.

Dog Arousal Stance

Defensive Aggression: When a dog is in a situation where he believes he might be in danger, he has two options; he can either fight or flee. When a frightened dog is approached by another dog, his natural instinct is to run away. But if he is on a leash, he isn’t able to run away and he becomes more fearful, and it usually results in the dog attacking the approaching dog. To the untrained eye, this might look like the dog is very aggressive towards other dogs, but he is actually afraid of the other dog and wasn’t able to back away. We call this fear-aggressive.

Dog Defensive Aggression Stance

Aggressive Attack: On the other hand, the aggressive dog is much more likely to exhibit the fight instinct. Aggressive dogs will do everything to make themselves look bigger. They lean forward on their toes, they bare their teeth and their body and face stiffen, exhibiting very deep facial wrinkles. The ears move forward and the tail wags stiffly and slowly from side to side. And they stare directly at the threat.

Dog Aggressive Stance

Overall, it is important to learn to understand dog body language so that you can respond accordingly to every situation.

If your dog is being submissive, then get him to change what he is feeling by going for a walk or doing something to boost his confidence. If your dog is emitting strong defensive aggression then you need to warn others that are in the same environment of what is happening. Just doing that alone can prevent a dog from biting someone.