I know you don't necessarily find these training terms concise, but I think it can be helpful to think about them, I think it allows more more creative and analytical thinking, instead of following a set of instructions that may or may not work for your individual dog. And learning theory principals always work, so if you get your head around the principals you can always find a workable solution. An aversive is something that happens in response to a behavior that the dog wishes to avoid. Some aversives are really mild, and some harsh. Aversives are different than punishment (even though it gets used interchangeably) because a punishment is something that decreases the likelihood of a behavior reoccurring, ideally to the point of extinguishing the behavior. So sometimes an aversive is not harsh enough to be punishing, or could even be reinforcing if it actually strengthens the behavior (like a puppy that starts chewing on shoes and the owner who was previously ignoring the pup gives them attention by scolding them and trying to get the shoe). This is one of the disadvantages of using punishment instead of reinforcement, sometimes to extinguish a behavior that is really rewarding the aversive has to be really harsh. So, a NRM is an aversive (the dog wishes to avoid not getting the reward). If it's an appropriate aversive for your training the dog should 1) stop offering the behavior you don't want and 2) offer another behavior. If the aversive is too harsh and punishing the dog will shut down. This could be as subtle as not offering any other behaviors because the dog would rather do nothing than offer something and get it wrong (that's Apollo). Or they could start barking at you(frustration-JJ does this), wondering off (JJ, Mia and Lucas do this), offering appeasement gestures (Mia does this all the time, rolls over and shows her belly, Lucas does this too). We want a dog who will stop doing unwanted behaviors and offer something else until they get it right.