The title actually isn't exactly my entire question. Let me provide some background info first. I used to have a pomeranian which was given to my family by my aunt. I am unsure if my aunt taught her this or not, but either way the dog adapted this behavior to an unfamiliar setting. Whenever my dog wanted to go outside, she would go to the door and bark at it. Then, one of my family members would open the door for her and let her go into the front yard and do her business. At first, we would keep a really close watch on her, sometimes accompanying her, even though she never bolted outside in excitement and showed signs of ever wanting to run away. After a while, we would be more lenient with keeping watch and we had found that she wouldn't run off, but she would instead just go outside, do her business, and come right back to the door. When nobody was at the door or window waiting/watching, she would actually bark at the door to let us know she was done and to let her in. I have a series of questions based on this. 1. How would I teach future dogs to bark at the door to let me know they want to go out? 2. How would I teach future dogs to not run off when unleashed? 3. Finally, how would I combine the first two? My theory for #1 is to teach the dog how to sit and speak before attempting to teach them this bathroom cue, and then sit them down and command them to speak before opening the door and heading out. As for #2, I am completely stumped Is that just a sort of depends-on-the-dog thing or can it be taught? My pomeranian never used to leave my side whenever I took her out for leisurely walks. She wouldn't even need a leash because she never chased anything, nor did she ever stray behind. She always followed where I went and never showed erratic, unpredictable behavior when out on a walk. My apologies if this post is a novel!